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Squatters operate within complex systems of economic and livelihood interdependency, both within their squatter community and through kinship networks that can extend to ancestral homes and other countries. From: International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home, Smart, in International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home Not all squatters experience clearance: long-term tolerance, legalisation, or in situ resettlement are other possible outcomes.
The expected trajectory for a Face squatter needed affects its characteristics, as investment in housing upgrading is either encouraged or discouraged, and as different types of residents are attracted. Research on squatter clearance has taken a variety of approaches: explaining why government policies regarding clearance are adopted, exploring the social effects of these policies, and recording the conditions under which protests emerge against displacement.
Research has had some influence on prevailing policies, by encouraging legalisation and squatter upgrading; however, a great deal of squatter clearance without resettlement still occurs. There are three principal modes of eviction with distinct dynamics: political, judicial, and bureaucratic.
Jan K. Brueckner, Somik V. Lall, in Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics The model of squatting of Brueckner and Selod is centered around Face squatter needed eviction issue, but the approach is entirely different from the approaches of the authors. As in the Hoy—Jimenez and Turnbull models, development of the land occupied by squatters is desirable when the revenue earned is high. But instead of following authors by saying little about the market for posteviction developed plots, Brueckner and Selod assume that such plots are rented out in the city's formal housing market.
For simplicity, housing capital is absent, with land consumption representing housing. So when eviction removes squatters from the land, the vacant plots are rented and occupied by formal residents. Eviction is desirable when p f exceeds the eviction cost per unit of land. The organizer achieves this goal by limiting the squeezing of the formal market, preventing escalation of p fand by controlling eviction costs.
As explained above, this structure helps to explain real-world patterns, in which the threat of eviction exists but its occurrence is relatively infrequent. These expenditures, which are dictated by the squatter organizer, could go partly toward political lobbying intended to build support for the squatter community. The expenditures could also support a squatter security force for defending the settlement, or they could represent foregone labor income as squatters spend time at home to defend their plots rather than working at full capacity Field provides evidence on such behavior, as discussed below.
Jimenez briefly includes defensive expenditures in his model, but he argues that they represent a public good exploitable through free riding, implying that the equilibrium level of such expenditures will be zero. With the squatter organizer dictating individual defensive expenditures, a positive level is sustainable.
The eviction cost thus depends on defensive expenditures per household, which are denoted by A. In addition, the size of the squatter population, N saffects eviction costs in a positive direction. With a larger total squatter population, the political outcry caused by eviction is more substantial, making eviction more costly. These relationships Face squatter needed captured by the eviction-cost function e AN swhich gives the eviction cost per unit of land. In order for eviction not to be worthwhile for landowners, the posteviction return to the land, given by the formal price p fcannot be larger than the eviction cost per acre.
The squeezing process determines p f in Individual land consumption for squatter households is denoted by h swhich implies that the total land area occupied by squatters equals N s h s. The fixed formal population must fit in this area, which requires the formal price p f to adjust so as to equate the total demand for land by formal residents to the available area.
The last elements of the model are the squatter utility function, u x sh sand the budget constraint. In contrast to the other models, squatters are assumed to incur no direct cost for the land they occupy, which is invaded and occupied with no payment Face squatter needed anyone. Squatters Face squatter needed, however, pay for defensive expenditures, as dictated by the squatter organizer.
The constraints for the optimization problem are the formal market-clearing condition It is easy to see that this constraint will bind at the solution, so that landowners are indifferent to evicting or not evicting the squatters. Given the complexity of the model, general comparative-static analysis of the squatter equilibrium is not feasible. However, using common functional forms, 27 the equilibrium solution can be computed, showing how the decision variables respond to changes in the exogenous variables.
One surprising feature of the solution a consequence of the assumed functional forms is that squatters occupy exactly half of the city's land area regardless of the values of the other parameters. With land supply to the formal sector thus effectively fixed, the formal price depends only on the strength of formal demand and not on squatter characteristics such as income y s. Squatter income does, however, affect N s and h swhich fall and rise, respectively, with y s in an offsetting fashion so as to keep the total squatter land area constant.
If all squatters were simultaneously switched to formal residency, being required to pay for their land, they would individually be worse off and the formal residents would be better off. The formal residents gain because the squatter group squeezes them less when formalized than it did originally, allowing formal land consumption to rise. Although formalized squatters are worse off, the analysis shows that formal residents could compensate them for their losses while still coming out ahead. This potential Pareto improvement shows that the original squatting equilibrium was inefficient.
Brueckner b extends this model by assuming that the city has multiple squatter organizers who are rent-seekers rather than benevolent agents. In addition to collecting defensive expenditures, the organizers require squatters to pay rent, which they pocket as income.
The article characterizes the squatting equilibrium for this case and presents a variety of comparative-static. Jiusto, in International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home The demands of squatter citizens that local government act to improve living conditions are often stymied by the scale of need relative to local capacity and the complex sociopolitical dynamics and competing imaginations that influence planning and decision-making processes, both within the community and throughout local, provincial, and national government.
Beyond evictions, governments have responded to informal settlements in three broad ways — by permanently moving squatters to sites newly developed elsewhere, by temporarily moving them so that existing camps can be bulldozed and redeveloped for their return, or by incrementally improving the community where it stands without relocating residents. The attraction of improved housing with legally established rights to Face squatter needed or own is tempered for many by difficulties associated with relocation.
Few communities are moved en masse to the same accommodations, and new sites and services are often located far from jobs and schools. Thus, fragile social networks underpinning interdependent livelihood strategies can disintegrate, requiring families to rebuild networks for shared child and elder care, employment, and the like. To reduce costs and achieve the maximum of housing plots possible, developers rarely include adequate provision for public spaces and amenities — community halls, schools, stores, and the like, and thus newly created neighbourhoods are often found to be isolating, crime-ridden caricatures of middle-class suburbia, absent the automobiles and income necessary to make these viable neighbourhoods.
It is not uncommon for residents to sell their lot and return to squatting. Both types of sites and Face squatter needed programme are frequently criticised for being deed more in the interest of politically connected developers than for poor people.
An alternative approach is informal settlement upgrading, involving incremental improvements requiring relatively little relocation. Successful upgrading processes typically depend on the ability of local government to effectively involve community-based and local nongovernmental organisations, larger NGOs, municipal planners and line departments, funders, academics, and community members in collaborative efforts to envision, plan, and implement change.
Infrastructural improvements remain central, but upgrading also forefronts other aspects of community health.
Upgrading can be slow and contentious, as diverse stakeholders seek to achieve consensus within a framework that also assures that their particular individual or organisational needs are met. Technical innovation is also required, as road and infrastructure development processes differ considerably from those used in wealthier areas. Upgrading can generate ificant new opportunities for local employment and skill development, but social cohesion can be undermined if tricky issues of patronage and transparency in how such opportunities are dispensed are not well managed.
The establishment of legal rights to occupy land is a key element of redevelopment planning, as squatters are more willing to invest in property to which they hold formal title or other legal claim.
In upgrading programmes, which are ificantly less expensive to implement than sites and services, the investment of residents with land title has been shown to be two to four times what government spends on infrastructure improvements, and private investment overall can exceed public investment by While economist Hernando de Soto and other neoliberal theorists argue that only fully titled and documented property rights allow squatters to enter the formal economy and access the myriad legal institutions upon which sustainable economic growth are predicated, Davis and others suggest individual land titling benefits only a small minority of squatters while leaving most further dispossessed and vulnerable.
Sustained, innovative commitment is also required if improvements are to eventually include transportation accommodations, schools, health care centres, formal business areas, and other elements of a healthy, well-functioning community. Such commitment is difficult to achieve, however, at both the local and national levels in developing countries whose political economies are often prone to internal disruption and the forces of globalisation.
A of successful projects indicative of the potential for upgrading have been achieved, however. The Kampung Improvement Program in Indonesia has reached an estimated 15 million people over 30 years through a coordinated, but bottom-up combination of public investment and assisted Face squatter needed initiatives in cities nationwide.
Brazil is among the leaders in innovative national and local policy reforms, having shifted the focus of government from resisting or ignoring favelas to instead building local capacity to plan effectively Face squatter needed their gradual upgrading and legalisation. South Africa and other countries are increasingly looking to similar policies to put informal settlements on a more propitious path to gradual economic and social development. Clarke, in International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home Although squatter housing has often been thought of as a rural type, most self-build rural housing in the twentieth century is of much better quality — as exemplified by the Barbados chattel house Figure 8.
Despite rural economic decline throughout the Caribbean in the last 50 years, a large part of the enormous flow of remittances from emigrants abroad has been invested in rural family housing and improved services. In addition, Caribbean peoples living overseas have constructed massive houses of white-painted concrete and pantiles not necessarily in their communities of originin anticipation of their return to their island home once they retire.
These ostentatious Face squatter needed are totally out of keeping with the village environment to which they are attached, and suggest that there will be alienation between long-term residents and returnee families. Figure 8. A two-hip chattel house in Barbados. However, villages untouched by migration and remittances remain simple places. Although homeownership is the norm, many dwellings are of wood; they are poorly serviced; and households rely on gas and paraffin for cooking. Some wooden housing may date back to the early s, when a couple of rooms and a verandah, glazed outer doors and sash windows, and roofing with wooden-shingle tiles were the rural ideal.
Nowadays the roofing will have been replaced by galvanised iron. Until the s, water in most village houses was fetched by children from a communal standpipe, but piped water — and electricity — is now virtually universal, except in the most backward communities. Reeve, in International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home The sociodemographic profile of squatters is unknown, there being very few reliable statistics relating to this population, but the limited existing evidence suggests squatters are a diverse group, comprising people of different ages, social, occupational and educational backgrounds, and political persuasions.
A distinction is often made between people who squat by necessity as a response to homelessness, and those who squat by choice as a political act or a means through which to live a nontraditional lifestyle. The only recent research about homeless people who squat suggests that squatters are more likely to be male and of white British ethnic origin than homeless people who have never squatted, and that they are most likely to be aged 26—35 Reeve and Coward, Evidence also suggests that people who squat while homeless are a part icularly vulnerable population.
Table 1 shows that, of a small sample of homeless people surveyed in England, those who had squatted were more likely than those who had never squatted to have been in local authority care, to have been in prison, to have experienced drug or alcohol dependency, and to have mental ill health. Table 1. Vulnerabilities and life experiences comparison between squatters and nonsquatters. London: Crisis. Squatters can also, however, be highly skilled and resourceful. Repairing a squatted property, arranging for utilities to be connected, and defending oneself against possession proceedings or eviction require extensive practical, technical, and legal expertise.
Squatters sometimes carry out extensive renovation work involving plumbing, electrical works, plastering, roofing, and decorating. Many thoroughly research their legal position and some defend themselves during court proceedings. The Crisis research identified six main reasons as to why people squat as a response to homelessness: because squatting is preferable to other forms of temporary accommodation such as hostels; because other temporary accommodation does not meet their needs for example does not accommodate couples, or accept pets ; out of consideration for friends and family that they could stay with but on whom they did not want to place a burden; because they cannot access other accommodation they have been excluded, do not meet the eligibility criteria, or no accommodation is available ; to avoid rough sleeping; or because all other options have been exhausted.
There are also those for whom squatting represents a way of developing alternative lifestyle practices, and of challenging and remaining outside traditional housing allocation systems. It can provide opportunities for living communally, for reshaping residential domestic space, redefining notions of family and household, and of rejecting private property and ownership.
Satterthwaite, in International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home They have also become less controversial — and often widely applied by governments in middle-income nations, even without international funding. Some of the limitations of early experiences have been addressed — for instance, the inadequacies in the improvements caused by the top-down planning and the lack of provision for maintenance. But in most cities, they have not been on the scale needed to reach the majority of urban poor.
In an ever-more interconnected global economy, all major cities depend in part on the success of their enterprises within global markets for goods and services. Mayors, city councillors, and civil servants often look to successful cities that they have read about or seen — for instance, Singapore, Dubai, or Shanghai.
It is difficult to envisage any successful city in a democracy that does not see them as citizens with legitimate rights to public services and to whom they should be able in which case upgrading becomes a central part of their housing Face squatter needed.
Goetz, in International Encyclopedia of Housing and Home The second common precondition for mass evictions is the concentration of poor residents, often in large informal settlements squatter settlements. Estimates put the of squatters Face squatter needed the world at close to 1 billion — or one-sixth of the world population. Most of these settlements are located in urban areas where there is an absolute shortage of housing or a lack of affordable housing for lower-income households. These settlements emerge on vacant land that is not served by public infrastructure. Evictions can occur, however, even where tenants are legally residing.
In these cases, the main challenge for those evicted is not their lack of tenancy rights, but their low income and lack of political clout to resist displacement. The process of gentrification can be described in several stages. Early stage models assume that gentrification starts with the influx of a few risk-oblivious pioneers, usually cultural strata artists, intellectuals, squattersand ends with the influx of large s of professional, business, and managerial middle classes, resulting in nearly complete displacement of lower-class renters and homeowners.
This model applies more to what is now seen as classic and American gentrification, following a period of recession, than to Face squatter needed new forms of gentrification, such as state-led gentrification not spontaneousmanaged gentrification where a certain mix is maintainednew-build gentrification as opposed to renovationand super-gentrification a subsequent wave.
These forms assume a different process and different stages — cyclical rather than with a clear beginning and end. Atkinson mentions that several authors across Europe provide examples that gentrification has been linked to policy interventions, for example in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain, resulting in forms of gentrification which are in varying degrees managed by governmental or government-related parties.
In many of these forms of gentrification, the language of gentrification stressing the positive effects of an inflow of middle-class residents in poor neighbourhoods on neighbourhood change is used to legitimise urban regeneration policies. Random examples around the globe show different ways of state intervention. In the United States, state intervention in gentrification processes has gradually increased from the s. During the s state intervention was mainly indirect but recently became more direct, for example through targeted federal expenditures to expand gentrification processes, providing grants to local housing authorities meant to demolish public housing complexes, or lifting rules that used to commit development authorities to replace demolished public housing.
City governments are increasingly encouraged to be direct players in real estate. In the United Kingdom, recent examples of state-led gentrification, such as the Housing Market Renewal Pathfinder areas deated by the government in the north of the country, where funds have been allocated to demolish social housing and build new housing by private developers, are not likely to combat displacement and social conflict in disadvantaged areas. A different kind of improvement than beautified streets, improved quality of housing, and clean storefronts is required for the existing nongentrified residents.
In the Netherlands during the s, urban revitalisation increasingly used the language of gentrification and became a way to alter the social composition of neighbourhoods, without much resistance from local residents.
One could question whether this is still gentrification as it involves different groups and does not directly displace lower-class residents — thus it would stretch the conceptual boundaries beyond usefulness. Davidson and Lees, however, see clear parallels because new-build gentrification would indeed involve middle-class resettlement, the production of a Face squatter needed landscape, and indirect displacement of lower-income residents i.Face squatter needed
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Squatter Settlements and Slums and Sustainable Development