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Their opportunities became limited to tamer intramural activities—often characterized by cast-off equipment, unskilled coaching, and poor facilities. Instead, the issue was equal access to resources. In response, Congress enacted the Education Amendments of A cofounder of the association, Two Shoes was known for her journalistic integrity and her hallmark sense of humor.
Two Shoes worked as writer, assistant editor, and columnist for the Wotanin Wowapi of Poplar.
She served as an editor for Native Peoples ; as an editor, writer, and producer for Aboriginal Voicesa Canadian magazine and radio show; and as a contributor to News from Indian Country. Throughout her career, Two Shoes blended humor with serious inquiry into matters affecting Indian Country. Founded in as an advocacy organization for American Indian prisoners, AIM coordinated several highly publicized protests in the early s, including the nineteen-month occupation of Alcatraz Island inthe occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs building in Washington, D.
The American Association of University Women has always aspired to the promotion of women as fully contributing, educated members of society. Until the s, this organization of female college graduates remained largely apolitical.
However, the social, economic, and political changes during the s and s spurred a transformation in AAUW. Under the leadership of courageous feminists, AAUW evolved into a prominent activist organization that brought women to the forefront of public policy making. Few Montana women had attained professional careers or had advanced to leadership positions; fewer still worked in the public-policy arena.
When Governor Tim Babcock created a state Commission on the Status of Women inAAUW seized the chance to initiate policy changes and secured the appointment of several of its members to the commission. Its goals were to get more women into local, county, and statewide appointed offices; to encourage women to stand for state elective office; and to keep women in office as state superintendent of schools.
Ernsberger continued to use her maiden name and teach school. They hid their marriage for three years.
On the other hand, advocates for married teachers tried unsuccessfully to reframe the debate in terms of student welfare. Under those circumstances, if she is allowed to teach, the community will be getting her very best service. Martha Edgerton came to Bannack as a teenager in Widowed young, she entered the workforce, becoming the first woman editor of a Montana daily newspaper, a local and state leader in the Montana Socialist Party, and a prolific writer.
Hers was a long life of striking achievements. Edgerton was thirteen when she arrived in Bannack in after her father was appointed governor of Idaho Territory.
Two years later, the family returned to Ohio, and she subsequently enrolled at Oberlin College to study music. Inthe couple moved to Helena, where Herbert became the superintendent of public schools. Their activism eventually took them to Great Falls, where, inthe Rolfes took out a homestead right outside the city, which had been newly surveyed and platted by Herbert himself.
Later that same year, a suffrage bill passed by over two-thirds in the Montana House, only to be tabled in the state Senate. The six Freedman children, ages eight to fifteen, had filed in with their mother early that morning in Recently divorced from her husband and earning little in her job as a research editor, Alice Freedman was overwhelmed.
Before leaving the children, she told them to wait for her return. As the day wore on, county workers noticed the children. At noon they bought them lunch and contacted the juvenile court. That evening, the Freedman children were taken to a local receiving home. Within two weeks, they were committed to the state orphanage and on their way to the facility in Twin Bridges. Similar scenarios had played out for the thousands of other residents of the Montana State Orphanage.
In the absence of local, state, or federal social welfare programs, the state orphanage was one of the few options available to these children and the destitute women who could no longer care for them. Betweenwhen the facility opened, andwhen legislative cuts forced its closure, the Montana State Orphanage housed over five thousand children. By the early s, Progressive Era reformers began arguing that orphanages were dehumanizing and rife with abuse. Children, they claimed, needed a healthy home life, with their parents, if possible, or, if not, with a worthy foster family.
To achieve this goal, they advocated the creation and expansion of government agencies to address the needs of abandoned, abused, or widowed women and their children. The League championed educated, vigorous citizen engagement in government. National rules prohibited members supporting or opposing political parties or candidates.
While women, especially unmarried women, had increasingly taken jobs outside the home since the turn of the century, most worked in service and clerical positions. In the early s, however, wartime production combined with labor shortages to open new opportunities for women in high-paying industrial jobs. Working in production and industrial maintenance positions for the first time, these Montana Rosies broke economic and social barriers. Their gains, however, were short-lived. Considered a temporary expedient rather than a permanent workforce, women were quickly pushed out of industry after the war, and their experiences foreshadowed the conservative gender expectations that women encountered in the s.
During their twenty-five year marriage, Coth-co-co-na bore two boys and two girls, moved briefly with Clarke to Michigan, and helped him establish a ranch near Helena. She mourned deeply when Clarke sent their two oldest children east for schooling. She died in They were partners, liaisons, and wives to the French, Scottish, Canadian, and American men who scoured the West for salable furs. Stereotyped by early historians as victims or heroines and there were bothindigenous women also wielded ificant, traceable power in this era of changing alliances, increasing intertribal conflict, and expanding European presence in the West.
The roles indigenous women played during the fur trade reflected the roles they historically held within their communities. Despite cultural distinctions among tribes, indigenous women generally shared the common responsibilities of procuring and trading food, hides, and clothing. Women also embodied political diplomacy as tribes forged internal and intertribal relationships around family alliances and cemented these social structures through often polygamous marriage.
These traditional economic and political roles placed indigenous women at the center of trade, and made them desirable and necessary partners for fur traders. Author Trina Robbins begins her book, Pretty in Ink: North American Women Cartoonists, —by identifying three notable twentieth-century women cartoonists who started their careers in the late s as illustrators working in New York City. Title IX, however, sought to ensure that girls would benefit from the same opportunities traditionally awarded to boys in athletics and other pursuits. AAUW members concerned themselves with a broad range of issues.
State officers are pictured here in When the school board refused to reconsider, they recruited candidates to run for the school board on a pro-married teacher platform. All three lost the election. Martha Edgerton arrived in Bannack in In later years she supported herself by writing articles about life in Montana Territory, some of which were based on her own memories.
Photograph by E. Many of them were not true orphans, but from destitute families whose parents could not care for them. This picture of Alexander and Natawista Culbertson, and their son Joe, was taken c. Visitors to the fort, where the Culbertsons entertained in white-linen European elegance, described Natawista as a beautiful, Iland where Butte Montana natives fuck married women woman and a skilled rider. Natawista briefly accompanied Alexander when he retired to Illinois but returned to Canada to re her Blood family.
Fanny Y. Cory Cooney produced most of her cartoons at the dining room table, or in the living room on a drawing board that she perched on her lap.
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